Monday, June 9, 2014

015 Mr. Narendra Modi may please order an enquiry into scientific validity of homoeopathy

Topics for discussion: 015, Scientific validity, Narendra Modi

A 2012 quote from the website of Shri Narendra Modi, our 2014 Prime Minister:
Link to go to the website of Shri Narendra Modi which contains the original. Click to go to homeopathy-conference-in-gandhinagar
CM inaugurates national homeopathy conference in Gandhinagar CM asks homeopaths to create an atmosphere of trust among people for the homeopathic treatment

Inaugurating the national homeopathy conference in Gandhinagar today Chief Minister Narendra Modi called upon homeopaths to create an atmosphere of trust among people for the homeopathic treatment.

Even as the homeopathic medicines are affordable and free from side effects, homeopaths should create awareness regarding it among the people. If the practitioners of homeopathy themselves lack the faith in homeopathy, people can not have trust on it. Success stories of homeopathy should properly be put before the people, he suggested.

There should not be a question of conflict between allopathy, ayurveda and homeopathy. All the three systems of treatment have some best things in them, he said.

ybrao-a-donkey's comments

I appeal to Mr. Narendra Modi to appoint a Commission of Enquiry to go into the scientific validity of the homoeopathy as a system of medicine. This is very important because homoeopathic medicines do not contain the medical substances which their labels indicate, owing to excess dilution made under a mistaken impression of creating potencies. The Union Government and the 29 State Governments are spending millions of Rupees for running Homoeo hospitals, clincs, Colleges, Universities and the so-called Research Stations.
No homoeopathic student/doctor/professor , unfortunately spends a little time on making an inquiry into the scientific validity of their system of medicine. Every one of them goes on supporting the potency theory.
When homoeo medicines fail to produce relief/cure, many homoeo doctors simply shift to prescribing allopathic medicines, without pondering over why they failed to produce the desired results (they do not bother to know that they are nothing but alcohol, sugar, milk sugar or some other filler, but definitely not the medical substance).

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

014 Can we consider the research by Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, as scientific?

Topics for discussion: homoeopathy, Institute of Chemical Technology, Pain Killers, Times of India
Times of India- India published a news item dated 9th April 2014 which reported that Homoeopathy is effective in treating arthritis.

Click to go to

Gist of the Research said to have been conducted at Institute of Chemical Technology, Mathunga, Mumbai (रसायन तंत्रज्ञान् संस्था, मुंबई) by Asst. Professor Sadhana Sathaye:--

...The rodents were arranged in four groups. The first group was healthy and hadn't been biologically engineered to suffer from arthritis like the rest. The second group was given water as a placebo, while the third was given homoeopathic medicines. The last group was given a popular diflofenac painkiller, which is widely used to treat inflammation of tissues among arthritic patients.

The allopathic medicines reduced the pain quickly, but by the seventh day, the homoeopathic pills were as effective.

By Day 14, the homoeopathic medicines seemed better.

Homoeopathic pills could emerge as the treatment of choice for patients with chronic pain.

Homoeopathic medicines have no side-effects like allopathic painkillers.

In the last five years, many studies have been done to prove the efficacy of homoeopathic pills. Recently, the state government's review of patients suffering from chinkungunya showed that those treated with homoeopathy had done far better than those on allopathic medicines. --Dr B H Shah, administrator of the Maharashtra Council of Homoeopathy.

ybrao-a-donkey's comments

This news report is not enough. Medical research, unfortunately both in allopathy, and homoeopathy, suffer from researchers' biases.

They are tailor made to cater to the needs of those persons/agencies who commission their work and pay for it.

Pain killing processes both in allopathy and homoeopathy, need greater explanations. Satisfactory pharmaco-kinetic explanations should be given on how the homoeopathic drugs administered by them reduced the pain.

Size of the sample has not been given.

ICT has to conduct a placebo controlled double blind trial.

ICT should verify and specify, even if be in nanograms or micrograms, the quantum of the medical substance in each dose administered, apart from sugar, alcohol and other fillers used to make up the dose. The unscientific nature of homoeopathy arises from the basic fact that the homoeo medicines are diluted to such an extent that they contain nothing but alcohol, sugar, water except the medical substance. Since the quantity has not been given, we have to presume that alcohol and sugar can be as effective as allopathic pain-killers. ICT website should make available a pdf copy of the full-length report, so that public can benefit from their studies.

Friday, May 10, 2013

#013 Does homoeopathic Belladona really cure fevers?

A commentator wrote at India Study
I am not agree with you Mr. Pramod. Hoemopathic medicines acts like a bullet. A small pill of belladona can reduce fever to the normal much faster than crocin. But the reason for your thought about homeopathy is obvious. People takes homepathic treatment of chronic disease only and no body can cure a chronic pain or any condition within one hour a day. It definitely takes months.
link if you wish to look at it: click to go to

ybrao a donkey`s views

I could not write my comments at that site because I could not find a window/menu. Hence, I am writing here.

Homoeopathic Belladona bottles do not really contain Belladona. Reason: excess dilution or mixing with milk sugar. Some times they may contain a 1/million or a 1/billion gm/mg. of Belladona. It will be too insignificant to have real effect on body.

The talk of potencies, nuclear fusion, nuclear fission etc. do not stand reason.

One retired Homoeopathic Hospital Superintendent printed leaflets which contained a sort of picture of belladona particles in the homoeopathic medicine, may be an examination under a very powerful microscope. The test was said to have been done at Indian Chemical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad. I sentI wrote to Indian Chemical Research Lab., Hyderabad, a few times, but they did not bother to reply. May be some unofficial testing.

Hence whatever claims are made for the curative powers of belladona or any other homoeopathic medicine, they do not stand reasoning.

Modern Medicine , in exceptionally and absolutely, hopeless life-threatening conditions, may allow relatives of patients to try empiric medicine.

Empiric experimentations with herbal/folk/some other medicines which have some substances plants/animal products/chemicals/vaccines etc. stand some reason. The problem with homoeopathic medicines is, they do not contain anything except alcohol, milk sugar and other bases.

Thursday, May 9, 2013

#012 Better to stop this waste of millions

India is a poor country.

In that poor country Andhra Pradesh is one poor State.

It has a flourishing IT software industry at Hyderabad. But it does not mean that people are rich.

Andhra Pradesh State Government in collusion with Private Hospital owners started a sort of Health Insurance Scheme (health care) called ″ArOgya ShrI″. In the name of providing super-speciality modern medical care, private hospitals have already started swindling public money, by submitting fictitious bills, grossly overcharging bills.

The Homoeopathy Hospital lobby, how can they lag behind? Can't?

Many Andhra Pradesh Government Officials too have a foolish fad for homoeopathy, simply because they do not care to verify whether homoeopathic medicines contain real medical substances. Owing to excess dilution in the name of potencies, the contents of bottles and packets do not actually contain the substances which the labels profess.

Cost of production of homoeopathic medicines must be very low as only alcohol or milk sugar are used as base, for dropping/mixing dilutions with them. Then, why super-speciality high-cost treatment becomes necessary?

Homoeopathy claims that it is poorman`s medical system. Does it need Government reimbursements?

The Andhra Pradesh State Government is already on the brink of becoming bankrupt, owing to excess borrowings and large budget deficit.

Better, they review their decision.

Monday, March 19, 2012

011 Gandhiji disbelieved homoeopathy in his later years

Gandhiji wrote in his notes on 9th Feb. 1922. Collected Works vol. 26.

Non-co--operation is not allopathic treatment, it is homoeopathic. The patient does not taste the drops given to him. He is sometimes even incredulous, but if the homoeopathy are to be trusted, the tasteless drops or the tiny pills of homoeopathy are far more potent than ounce doses or choking pills of allopathy.

Gandhiji wrote to Jamnalal Bajaj on 16th April 1933. Source: Collected Works Vo. 60.

I have your letter. I do not have much faith in Homoeopathy. But for that you should not postpone your going to a hill-station. I like your idea of going to Almora. There is a good Homoeopath even there. For your ailment, other than the mountain air, milk, butter, fruit, wheat roti and vegetables, you will hardly need any medicine.

Gandhiji wrote to one Mr. Titus on 28th April 1933.

You have missed my point about ‘Allopathic’ and ‘Homoeo- pathic’. Personally I would prefer Homoeopathy any day to Allo- pathy. Only I have no personal experience of its efficacy and I have told you so. Perhaps if you have confidence in yourself, and if you can really spare time from the daily work for attending to Homoeopathic remedies, so far as I am concerned I do not mind your trying them. You may discuss this thing with Narandas and if you are interested in the simple treatment of diseases I would like you to understand Dr. Sharma’s system. He has great confidence in his own method and if his experiments in the Ashram succeed it will be a great gain.

Gandhiji wrote to Gangabehn Vaidya on 5th June 1936. Source: Collected Works Vol. 69.

Tell Jugatram[2] to consult a homoeopath. Homoeopathy has not won my faith, but it helped Devdas and a medical specialist[3] whom we met here is all praise for it. In any case it will do no harm, and may do some good.

Gandhiji wrote to Sardar Vallabhai Patel on :14.9.1941.
Source: Collected Works Volume 81.

Do not worry about anything just now. Your health must mend completely. If homoeopathy helps you, I will begin to have some faith in it. I have never been able to put any faith in it. I entrusted a case to a homoeopath but there was no result. It was Tari’s[2]. But this is only by the way. I do wish homeopathy benefits you. I have heard much about it. Das[3] believed in it, and so did Motilalji and Gurudev. Does not our Lakshmidas also believe in it? But finally everybody takes refuge in allopathy. All this is beside the point, but let it be. We are concerned only with the result.

This view was somewhat neutral about homoeopathy. But it is clear that Gandhiji was res ult-conscious.

Gandhiji wrote to Guljarilal Nanda, former Home Minister of India. Date: 27.5.1944. This seems to be Gandhiji's last letter on homoeopathy.

I read your letter to Pyarelal. Dr. Das visits me from time to time. Dr. Chugh has not impressed me, Dr. Das has. He does not propose to administer any medicine to me. By all means bring over anyone you like from among the names that you suggest. I wish I could have faith in homoeopathy and biochemic medicines, but I don’t. Now I am thinking of taking allopathic drugs to get rid of the hook-worms and the amoebae. Your work seems to be going on well. Can one say that you have completely recovered?

summary of all the above: Gandhiji didn't have full confidence in homoeopathy. He was not averse to OTHERS trying homoeopathy, but he himself wanted to take allopathic treatment to get rid of his hook-worms and amoebae.

If these are the facts, how is it that homoeopathic Companies are advertising that Gandhiji approved homoeopathy?

Monday, January 23, 2012

009 Did Mahatma Gandhi believe in homoeopathy or allopathy?

Topics for Discussion: Gandhiji's convictions, Amoebae, allopathy, Gulzarilal Nanda.

Gandhiji wrote to Gulzarilal Nanda (our acting Prime Minister when Jawaharlal Nehru and Lal Bahadur Sastri died).
date: May 27, 1944.
source: Volume 84. Complete Works of Mahatma Gandhi. has it. has it.

[After May 27, 1944]
I read your letter to Pyarelal. Dr. Das visits me from time to time. Dr. Chugh has not impressed me, Dr. Das has. He does not propose to administer any medicine to me. By all means bring over anyone you like from among the names that you suggest. I wish I could have faith in homoeopathy and biochemic medicines, but I don’t. Now I am thinking of taking allopathic drugs to get rid of the hook-worms and the amoebae. Your work seems to be going on well. Can one say that you have completely recovered?

ybrao-a-donkey's observations:
I am happy that Gandhiji did not believe in homoeopathy and biogchemic remedies.

Gandhiji was said to be an ardent fan of nature cure. He wrote a small book also about it, which I read it in my boyhood. I am unable to trace it now. Did he lose his faith in nature cure by 1944?

There are some quotes in circulation which suggest that Gandhiji supported homoeo. Here is one such quote:

"Homeopathy cures a larger percentage of cases than any other method of treatment, and is beyond all doubt safer, more economical, and the most complete medical science. -- Mahatma Gandhi + his photo, along with the photos of Einstein, Mark Twain, Yehudi Menuhin, and David Beckham. "

This quote, I got, at They are using it as a testimonial. There are also other homoeo sites using the quote. We have to check up when Gandhiji said that.

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Where does the harm come from so called 'potencies'?

I quote from an opinion of Royal E. S. Hayes of Waterbury, CT
Homeopathic Recorder, 1949.

A rational conclusion, fertilized by unfortunate experiences, has grown up from an intuitive one that, except in rare instances, the attempt to teach homeopathy to patients has done and will do more harm than good. Lay prescribing has set back the progress of a number of my patients and interfered with the orderly development of vitality. As a watcher over the life of each of my patients, I would rather have one take an aspirin or a laxative, if purely fortuitous and confessed, than to let him try to play with homeopathic remedies. As Kent says the effects of crude drugs soon wears off, but the unwise use of potencies can impress a new and incurable miasm on the vital economy and complicate the older ones. Another calamity is the untimely use of remedies.

My comments as a lay blogger

1. Homoeopathic preparations are said to be harmless, as per the well-established beliefs. This seems to be true because they do not contain any medical substances left in the amalgam of diluted extracts and alcohol -or- mixture of milk sugar and powder of the substance. Use of dilutions / quantity-reduced powder-mixtures
will be as good as -- or as bad as not using any medicine at all. This is true in both the cases of layman's use and licensed doctor's use. The absence of a substance in a potency in a homeopathic medicine does not vanish, simply because it is prescribed by a qualified homoeopath.

2. Then, how was it that Kent opined that unwise use of potencies could impress a new and incurable miasm (miasma) on the vital economy and complicate the older ones? Do potencies carry miasms?
The 1913 Webster Dictionary defined Miasma as under:--

Miasm = Miasma.
Miasma Mi*as"ma, n.; pl. Miasmata. [NL., fr. Gr. ?
defilement, fr. ? to pollute.]
Infectious particles or germs floating in the air; air made
noxious by the presence of such particles or germs; noxious
effluvia; malaria.
[1913 Webster]

-- From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48

n 1: an unwholesome atmosphere; "the novel spun a miasma of
death and decay" [syn: miasma, miasm]
2: unhealthy vapors rising from the ground or other sources;
"the miasma of the marshes"; "a miasma of cigar smoke" [syn:
miasma, miasm]

-- From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006)

47 Moby Thesaurus words for "miasma":
BO, afterdamp, bad breath, bad smell, blackdamp, body odor, breath,
chokedamp, cloud, coal gas, damp, effluvium, exhalation, exhaust,
exhaust gas, fetid air, fetidity, fetidness, fetor, firedamp,
flatus, fluid, foul breath, foul odor, frowst, fume, graveolence,
halitosis, malaria, malodor, mephitis, nidor, noxious stench,
offensive odor, puff of smoke, reek, reeking, rotten smell, smoke,
smudge, steam, stench, stench of decay, stink, vapor, volatile,
water vapor
- -- From Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0

Why should the alcohol-dissolved-sugar/milk-sugar particles carry infectious particles and germs? This seems to be a vague-threat by Kent, blindly accepted by Mr. Hayes. If sugar pills and dilutions carry infectious particles or germs, then homoeopathic medicines should be worse than their allopathic counterparts which are blasted day-in and day-out by homoeopathic physicians.

If homoeopathic medicines carry infectious particles and germs, in case owing to a judgement of error, if a qualified homoeopath competent or incompetent prescribes such medicines, the damage will be as dangerous as lay prescribing (modern terms: self-medication).

Another line of Dr. Hayes from the same article, reads as under:--
Moreover, orderly work requires the finest consideration as to sequences, an art unattainable by any except the full time student practitioner.

Is a Doctor's work an art or a science? Is prescribing an art or science? Why Dr. Hayes was calling sequencing an art? An art becomes a thing of individual skill and trait.

'Art' when used in its purest sense, cannot be acquired or taught. There may be exceptions. Sciences on the other hand are systematized knowledge bases. Sciences can be taught without forming their 'scientific base'.
(to continue).

Saturday, May 7, 2011

What is wrong with the Indian Corporate CEOs?

News reports indicate that a survey conducted by the Assocham (Association of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry) has revealed that 40% of the C.E.O.s of Indian Corporates consult homoeopathic physicians.

C.E.O.s of Indian Corporates are flush with wealth.
Why should they consult homoeopaths?
It is not, definitely, the cheapness of the homoeopathic treatment which pulls them towards itself.

Probably because : The Intensive Care Units of the Five Star Corporate Hospitals handle patients like cargo in Chicago O'hare Airport.

Probably because : The C.E.O. has to remain shackled to his bed for several weeks (till he dies), without visiting his club or the golf course or the billiards table or his bewitching mistress of the #2 account or #3 account.

Probably because : Relatives will be lurking around him with a faint or font hope that he may reveal the pins and passwords of his secret accounts with foreign banks.

Consulting a homoeopath does not normally result in hospitalisation. The C.E.O. can conveniently gulp down the sweet sugar pills in his Cabin without leaving his Company's premises.

But the poor , otherwise extremely efficient / intelligent C.E.O. does not know that he was exposing his body to the risk/peril of not receiving any treatment at all. This is because the so-called-potentized homoeopathic medicines do not contain the medicinal substances. The homoeopathic physicians do not tell their patients that the medicines administered by them may not contain any medicinal substance except alcohol and sugar/milk sugar.

The Homoeopaths do the samething - which the C.E.O.s and their Companies do to the consumers who buy their products. What is it?

Wednesday, October 7, 2009


Many TV channels in our area carry marquees shouting at the roof top canvassing for "world class positive homoeopathy. They promise to cure numerous diseases ranging from diabetes to orthopaedic problems.

What is "world class"? Nobody can define. Anybody can claim that the goods and services they sell are of world class.

What is "positive"? Homoeopathy is positive in the sense that it administers as medicine the same substance which caused the symptoms. It does not need an adjective "positive", because the phrase 'positive homoeopathy' leads to an inference about 'negative homoeopathy'.

Homoeopathy, if we go by its basic principles, do not make use of names of diseases such as diabetes. Only symptoms exist. No disease names. Negative homoeopathy arises when doctors and hospitals promise to negate diseases.

The real ineffectiveness of homoeo does not arise from its positive nature or from using disease names. The homoeopathic drugs become disfunctional because they do not contain the medicinal substances which the labels claim to contain. This is due to excessive dilution.

SUMMARY: Beware of claims of phrases like "world class" and "positive homoeopathy".

Tuesday, September 29, 2009


The Hindu Newspaper published page 18 news report on the 29th Sept. 2009.


Where: Melbourne, Australia.
Convicted persons: Thomas Sam, a College Lecturer in Homoeopathy. His wife: Manju.
Baby manslaughtered: Gloria, nine month old baby of theirs.
Quantum of sentence:Husband six years; wife four years. (Maximum permissible punishment as per law 25 years.
Nature of manslaughter: Criminal neglegence leading to death.
Brief details of the events:
*Baby suffered from eczema.
*Father gave homeopathic treatment.
*Child drifted from treatable condition to death.
*Father continued to persist with the homoeopathic treatment. Mother deferred to his wishes.
*A nurse observed deterioration of the child's condition.
*The father did not care to consult a conventional physician or a skin specialist.
*Father consulted practiotioners of natural medicine. In the mean time, the child's black hair turned white.
*The child's infection entered her blood. It was too late. The parents rushed her to a hospital. Emergency treatment did not help.

This judgement is an epoch-making judgement.

*Homoeopathic College lecturers and physicians do not know that the medicines they administer do not contain any medical substance and consequently the patients are left to the mercy of the internal curative powers of the body. If the body's natural resistance and curative powers awaken before the patient dies, a cure takes place. This, the homoeopathic practitioners triumpet as their success.

*The District Collectors and Ministers in India distribute doses of homoeopathic drugs, for prevention of swine flu, bird flu etc., little knowing that the so called potencies do not contain any medical substances at all.

*A person who wears a talisman and a patient who consumes homoeo medicines get the same benefit.

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

#005 Homoeopathy cannot prevent or cure Swine flu

The Homoeopathic practitioners in India claim success in preventing/curing Swine flu (H1N1 virus), which is spreading fast.

The homoeopathic system of medicine is unscientific. The drugs made using the method of trituration and succusion founded by Samuel Hahneman, do not work because they do not contain the basic substances of the medicines, whose labels they carry. Excessive dilution in the potentisation is the reason for the absence of the medicinal substances in the homoeopathic preparations.

Those who consume homoeopathic drugs under the impression that they will work, will have the same effect as those who use no medication at all.

The homoeopathic medical practitioners do not have time or inclination to verify whether the homoeopathic preparations sold by pharmaceutical companies do really have any substances. Their minds do not think in a rationalistic way. Consequently, they mislead people about the curative powers of homoeopathy and make a living.

Governments spend money on homoeopathic colleges, hospitals and medicines without proper investigation and swindle millions.

Sunday, February 15, 2009


The Uttar Pradesh Government indicated in its 2008-09 Budget, that it would be setting up two new Homoeopathic Colleges in the State. The funds will go into the drains because the scientific base of the Homoeo has not been proved. Every year, the two Colleges will manufacture scores of B.H.M.S. and D.H.M.S. doctors to thrive on the gullible public as if the existing allopathic doctors are not enough.

Thursday, November 8, 2007


HIV AIDS is a serious problem. The following link contains a newsreport dated Nov. 8, 2007 in which N.A.R.I. (National Aids Research Institute) and Shri N.K. Ganguly, I.C.M.R (Indian Council of Medical Research) have claimed that a homoeopathic medicine was found to be very effective against HIV/AIDS.

As mentioned in my first post (#100), first of all the scientific basis of homoeopathy is to be proved beyond doubt. Basically, homoeopathic medicines do not contain the substances named on the label because dilution with alcohol/milk sugar is extended to abnormal levels resulting in non-existence of the medical substance.

In the circumstances, if a claim is made that a particular homoeo medicine cures HIV/AIDS, we have to presume that no medicine is administered at all except base fillers like alcohol, milk-sugar. This will mean that human body's self defence mechanisms themselves cure HIV/AIDS naturally. The homoeo medicines can then only have a placebo effect.

Friday, October 5, 2007


Here I furnish below a link to Dr. Rati Ram Sarma's blog.

I do not support the ideas expressed therein. But we have to read both sides of an argument, before an opinion can be formed. Hence, I welcome your reading it.

WORD OF CAUTION:There seems to be lot of publicity material at the blog. One will have to cross-check and verify facts with utmost caution.


(Originally posted in my, sometime back. Now brought here, as exclusive treatment is being given to Homoeopathy).


Homoeopathy was founded by Samuel Hahnemann in 1776 (same year as American Independence).
Dr. Hans Burch Gram introduced in NewYork, in 1825. History of American Homoeopathy can be found at

The birth anniversary of Samuel Hahnemann was celebrated recently (April 10), worldwide.

Basic principle of working of homoeo

"Similia similibus curentur - let likes be treated by likes". To simply, the implication means:
If a person consumes a substance X, it induces a,b,c,d symptoms. Persons suffering from a,b,c,d symptoms can cure themselves by the consuming the substance X.

Are there any conditions attached?

(According to homoeopaths)

For getting results, the substance is to be consumed in homoeopathic doses (minute quantities) and not in crude doses (normal quantities like 100 mg or 1 gram.). When the quantity of substance is reduced, the curative power (potency) of the medicine increases.

How the homoeopathic medicines are made?

Made by using the methods of succusion and trituration as recommended by Hahnemann.

What is succusion?

Succusion is shaking. The substance is mixed in alcohol and the container is shaken.

What is trituration?

Trituration is grinding into powder. The substance is mixed with milk sugar (base) and ground in mortars.

How potencies are made?

Potencies are made by reducing the substance of medicine and increasing the base (alcohol or milk-sugar). There are three common potency types.


Quantity of substance goes down by degrees of 10.
1 X (Pronounced one ex) = 1/10
2 X = 1/100.
3 X = 1/1000 6 X = 1/1000000 12X = 1/100000000000
(See the number of 0s)

For making 1 gram of 1 X of medicine, take .1 gram of substance and .9 grams of alcohol. Shake specified number of times as fixed by Hahnemann. Total will be 1 gram. .

For making 1 gram of 2 X : -- take .1 gram of 1 X and .9 grams of alcohol. Shake. Total will be 1 gram of 2 X.

1 c, 2 c, 30 c, 200 c etc. In practice, the suffix C is omitted. Simply numbers are mentioned.

1 C: 1 gm. of dilution will contain .01 gm. of substance, and .99 gm. of alcohol.

.01 gm. of substance and .99 gm. of milk sugar.

How much can a 200 power homoeo medicine may contain the medicine?

The succusion or trituration is done in 200 instalments or stages.
The medicine content in one gram of total dilution:
1/10 to the power of 200 zeros grams of the substance. Remaining will be alcohol.

If 4 or 5 drops of this alcoholic dilution is sprinkled on one dram of sugar pills, how much substance of medicine does one sugar pill contain? Probably, nothing.

Give a more clearer example?

If a cashew cookie biscuit is distributed to the 6000 million people on this planet Earth breaking into small pieces, how much cashew does one person get? How many people will get cashew? How many will get wheat flour? Will that small quantity of cashew satiate the hunger?

Should not a minimum quantity of substance be required to start curing?

Homoeopathy says that no substance need actually be present. Potentisation takes place with the succusion (shaking) and trituration (grinding).

How is it that some people who are being treated with homoeo are getting cured?

If a person is given pills from a bottle labelled "Natrum Mur", the pills do not contain the chemical Natrum Mur (Sodium Chloride). He will be consuming only sugar pills and alcohol. When no medicine is consumed, man's cure depends on the changes he makes in his diet, his natural self curative abilities and the white blood corpucles, internal enzymes, changes he made in his diet, physio-exercises done etc.

He may have a faith cure or placebo or some psychological changes.

Do randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies prove Homoeopathy?

The studies belong to stage 2. The suspicion is on the stage 1 itself existence of the advertised medicine apart from alcohol. It is about existence of the "medicine" name of which the label mentions.